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Zinc Sulphate, deep History, top Uses, Side effects, Dosage and 15 Brands in Pakistan

Zinc Sulphate, deep History, top Uses, Side effects, Dosage and 15 Brands in Pakistan

  • May 8, 2024
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Introduction

Zinc sulphate is a vital mineral supplement that plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal health. It is an inorganic compound composed of zinc, sulphur, and oxygen, with the chemical formula ZnSO4. It is commonly used in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and water treatment.

Chemical Properties:

  • Molecular weight: 161.44 g/mol
  • Appearance: White or colorless crystals
  • Solubility: Soluble in water, glycerol, and alcohol
  • pH: 5.5-6.5 (aqueous solution)

Forms of Zinc Sulphate:

  • Monohydrate (ZnSO4.H2O)
  • Hexahydrate (ZnSO4.6H2O)
  • Heptahydrate (ZnSO4.7H2O)

History of zinc sulphate

Zinc sulphate is a chemical compound that has been known since the 16th century, and it was historically known as “white vitriol” ¹. In the early 20th century, it was used as a means to boost immunity against the flu, but this was not effective and potentially made participants more susceptible to infection. It is used medically as a dietary supplement and to treat zinc deficiency, and it is also used in the production of rayon and as a precursor to the pigment lithopone.

Mechanism of Action

Zinc sulphate works through various mechanisms, depending on its application:

Zinc Deficiency Treatment

  • Absorbed in the gut, zinc sulphate replenishes zinc stores.
  • Zinc ions support enzyme function, protein synthesis, and immune response.

Diarrhea Treatment

  • Zinc sulphate reduces intestinal fluid secretion and inflammation.
  • Zinc ions help regulate gut mucosal function and integrity.

Fertilize

  • Zinc sulphate provides essential zinc to plants.
  • Zinc ions support photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and enzyme function.

Zinc Sulphate uses

Zinc Sulphate is a versatile and essential compound with a wide range of uses, from supporting immune function. Here are some of its main uses:

Dietary Supplement

Prevents and treats zinc deficiency, which can lead to:
  • Impaired immune function
  • Slow wound healing
  • Hair loss
  • Skin problems
  • Impaired growth and development

Wound Care

Topical application to:
  • Promote wound healing
  • Reduce inflammation
  • Prevent infection
  • Supports tissue repair and regeneration
  • Helps to create a protective barrier against bacteria and other contaminants

Skin Conditions

Treats various skin conditions, including:
  • Acne
  • Eczema
  • Minor cuts and scrapes
  • Skin irritations
  • Reduces inflammation and promotes healing
  • Helps to soothe and calm irritated skin

Agriculture

Used as a:
  • Fertilizer
  • Pesticide
  • Promotes plant growth and development
  • Prevents crop damage from pests and diseases

Cosmetics

Used in:
  • Skincare products
  • Hair care products
  • Mouthwashes
  • Due to its antiseptic and astringent properties
  • Helps to soothe and calm irritated skin and mucous membranes

Animal Feed

Used as an additive in animal feed to:
  • Promote growth and development
  • Prevent zinc deficiency
  • Supports immune system function
  • Essential for protein synthesis and wound healing

Potential Side Effects of Zinc Sulphate

While zinc sulphate is generally considered safe, it can cause some side effects, especially when taken in high doses or for extended periods. Some side effects of Zinc Sulphate include:

Gastrointestinal Issues

  • Nausea: Feeling queasy or sick to your stomach, which can lead to vomiting.
  • Vomiting: Forcing up food and liquids from your stomach, which can lead to dehydration.
  • Diarrhea: Frequent and watery stools, which can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.
  • Stomach Cramps: Severe pain in your abdomen, which can be constant or come and go.
  • Abdominal Pain: Generalized pain in your abdomen, which can be mild or severe.

Allergic Reactions

  • Hives: Red, itchy, and swollen patches on your skin that can appear anywhere.
  • Itching: Intense itching sensation on your skin, which can be hard to relieve.
  • Difficulty Breathing: Shortness of breath, wheezing, or coughing, which can be life-threatening.

Copper Deficiency

  • Anemia: Low red blood cell count, which can cause fatigue, weakness, and pale skin.
  • Weakness: Feeling tired, sluggish, or lacking energy.
  • Other Symptoms: Copper deficiency can also cause nerve damage, poor wound healing, and impaired immune function.

Stomach Ulcers

  • Bleeding: High doses of zinc sulphate can cause stomach ulcers to bleed, leading to black tarry stools, vomiting blood, or feeling lightheaded.
  • Pain: Severe pain in your abdomen, which can be constant or come and go.

Kidney Problems

  • Kidney Damage: Long-term use of zinc sulphate can damage your kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease or kidney failure.
  • Kidney Stones: Zinc sulphate can increase the risk of developing kidney stones, which can cause severe pain and bleeding.

Blood Sugar Control

  • Blood Sugar Fluctuations: Zinc sulphate can affect blood sugar control, especially in people with diabetes, leading to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).
  • Diabetes Complications: Poor blood sugar control can lead to long-term complications like nerve damage, kidney damage, and vision problems.

Precautions and Warnings

While using Zinc Sulphate, it is essential to be aware of certian precautions and warnings:

General Precautions

  • Zinc sulphate should only be used under medical supervision.
  • Inform your doctor about all medications and supplements you’re currently taking.
  • Monitor your kidney function and electrolyte levels regularly.
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women should consult their doctor before using zinc sulphate.

Warnings

  • Allergic reactions: Discontinue use if you experience itching, hives, or difficulty breathing.
  • Gastrointestinal issues: It cause nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. If severe, seek medical attention.
  • Kidney damage: Long-term use or high doses may cause kidney damage. Monitor your kidney function regularly.
  • Pediatric use: It should only be used in children under medical supervision.
  • Geriatric use: Elderly patients may require lower doses due to decreased kidney function. Monitor your kidney function regularly.

Zinc Sulphate Interactions

Zinc sulphate may interact with the following medications:

Antibiotics

Zinc sulphate can reduce the absorption of certain antibiotics, such as:

  • Tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline, minocycline)
  • Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin)

This interaction can lead to reduced efficacy of the antibiotic treatment. To avoid this interaction, take zinc sulphate at least 2 hours before or after taking antibiotics.

Blood Thinners

Zinc sulphate can increase the risk of bleeding when taken with blood thinners like:

  • Warfarin (Warfarin is used as an anticoagulant, which means it prevents the formation of blood clots.

This interaction can lead to increased risk of bleeding or bruising. Monitor your bleeding risk and adjust your medication as needed.

Diuretics

Zinc sulphate can increase the risk of kidney damage when taken with diuretics like:

  • Furosemide (Lasix)
  • Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

This interaction can lead to kidney damage or electrolyte imbalance. Monitor your kidney function and electrolyte levels regularly.

Immune Suppressants

Zinc sulphate can reduce the effectiveness of immune suppressants like:

  • Prednisone
  • Cyclosporine

This interaction can lead to reduced efficacy of the immune suppressant treatment. Monitor your immune response and adjust your medication as needed.

Oral Contraceptives

Zinc sulphate may reduce the absorption of oral contraceptives like:

  • Ethinyl estradiol (EE)
  • Levonorgestrel

This interaction can lead to reduced efficacy of the oral contraceptive. Use alternative methods of contraception or monitor your menstrual cycle regularly.

Quinolone Antibiotics

Zinc sulphate can reduce the absorption of quinolone antibiotics like:

  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Levofloxacin

This interaction can lead to reduced efficacy of the antibiotic treatment. Take zinc sulphate at least 2 hours before or after taking quinolone antibiotics.

Vitamin and Mineral Supplements

Zinc sulphate may interact with other vitamin and mineral supplements like:

This interaction can lead to reduced absorption or increased risk of toxicity. Monitor your vitamin and mineral levels regularly and adjust your supplements as needed. 

Zinc Sulphate Dosage

The recommended dosage of zinc sulphate can vary depending on the specific condition being treated and the age of the individual. Here are some general dosage guidelines:

For general dietary supplementation, the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for elemental zinc is as follows:

  • Males: 11 mg per day (Upper intake limit: 34 mg)
  • Females: 9 mg per day (Upper intake limit: 34 mg)
  • Pregnancy: 11 mg per day (Upper intake limit: 40 mg)

Overdose

  • Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, headache, dizziness, and fatigue.
  • Treatment: Seek medical attention immediately. Treatment may involve inducing vomiting, activated charcoal, and supportive care.

Missed Dose

  • If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember.
  • If it’s close to the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with the regular schedule.
  • Do not double the dose to make up for the missed one.

Brands in Pakistan

In Pakistan, Zinc Sulphate is marketed under the following brands:

  • DIASUL (Helix Pharma)
  • EZINC (W. Woodward Pakistan)
  • ZINCAT OD (Atco Pharma)
  • KILIN (Linear Pharma)
  • MASZINC (Masfa Industries)
  • MELBEK (Navegal Laboratories)
  • ORAZINC (Amson Vaccines & Pharma)
  • OSIRIS (Sami Pharmaceuticals)
  • Z-SULP (Jawa Pharmaceuticals)
  • ZATE (Shaheen Pharmaceuticals)
  • ZERUP (Consolidated Chemical Laboratories)
  • ZIGLIT (Glitz Pharma)
  • ZINCARE (Zincasa)
  • ZINKLET (Hilton Pharma)
  • ZINPLEX (Neutro Pharma)
  • ZYNQ (Nabiqasim Industries)
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